The Torah of Moses

The Torah of Moses

A Closer Look at the Law of Moses

Deuteronomy 1:5; 4:5-8

            Most tend to view the Bible more as a book of independent truths or facts – a rulebook consulted for the appropriate answer. While the Bible certainly does have rules, its message is designed to be understood as a complete, connected, holistic revelation concerning God, His will, and His plan. With this in mind, we will have a look at some “connect-the-dots” understandings relative to the Torah of Moses.

It is the “Torah,” not the “Pentateuch”

  •        “Torah” is the proper Hebrew word for this section of Hebrew                 Scripture.
  •        The Torah of Moses refers to the first five books of the Old Covenant.
  •         The word “torah” should be defined as “instruction” or “teaching” rather than“law.”

The Torah of Moses served as the law library for Israel.

  •           Priests taught and made decisions based on its teachings (Lev. 10:8-11; Deut.  17:8-10; 31:24-36)
  •          Kings, likewise, were to know Torah and rule under its authority (Deut.

           17:19-20; II Kgs. 22:8-13; 23:1-3).

  •       Prophets were Torah-centered covenant lawyers (Jer. 6:16).
  •       The people of Israel were to affirm and live by Torah (Deut. 30:15-16; cf. I I Kgs. 23:1-3; Neh. 8:1-8).
  •       Wisdom Literature is based on its principles.
  •       Biblical narratives in the Old Covenant illustrate Torah as it is lived out

                   among the people.

  •          The Writing Prophets present God’s Torah cases and speak of His fidelity to covenant and ultimate Torah promises.

Torah Breakdown

  •           Genesis 1-11, Universal Beginnings.
  •           Genesis 12-50, Israel’s Beginnings.
  •           Exodus 1-14, Release from Egyptian Slavery.
  •           Exodus 15- Leviticus, Laws for the Nation
  •           Numbers, The Wilderness Wandering.
  •           Deuteronomy, Making Things Clear.

Levels of Torah Instruction

  •           Management of the nation by civil law (note Gal. 3:24; 4:1-2).
  •           Religious “types” for Israel and pointing to Jesus (Heb. 8:4-6; 10:1-            2).
  •           Principles grounded in God’s nature (Lev. 19:18; Deut. 6:4-8).

                  o     Faith was always the key (Deut. 30:11-14).

                  o     Law alone led to death (Rom. 5:20-21; Jas. 2:10).

                  o     Paul put the pieces together (Rom. 10:5-8; Rom. 2:28-29).

Torah and Atonement

  •           There were limitations.

                   o     An altar 7 1/2 by 7 ½ in surface area (Ex. 27:1).

                   o     The blood of the altar could not remove sin (Heb. 10:4).

                   o     There was only one acceptable place for the Bronze Altar (Deut.               12:5, 11; I Kgs. 8:27-30).

  •           Nevertheless, there were additional factors to consider.

                   o     The Day of Atonement for the nation (Lev. 16).

                   o     Praying toward Jerusalem (I Kgs.8:27-30; cf. Dan. 6:10).

                   o     A Covenant People (Gen. 17:17; II Sam. 12:13; Ps. 51; remember the thief on the cross, Lk. 23:39-43).

                   o     Forgiveness was promised by God in the Old Covenant (Lev. 4:20, 26, 31, 35;5:10, 13, 16, 18).

                   o     Paul, again, explains (Rom. 3:21-31).

  •           Interesting Considerations

                   o     Aliens had a place at the Bronze Altar (Lev. 17:8-9).

                   o     Women could also approach the Bronze Altar (Lev. 12:1-8; 15:25-30; Lk.  2:21-38).

                   o     Jesus’ cleansing the temple reacted to the Jews creation of a Court of the Gentiles, not found in the Old

                             Covenant, to keep them distant from the temple and then corrupting that area with merchandising (Mk. 1  1:17-18; Isa. 56:6-8; Jer. 7:11; Eph. 2:11-22).

Deuteronomy

  •          A Special role (29;1).
  •           Less than 50% of previous legislation.
  •           A “key” to understanding the focus and implementation of the law (1:5).
  •           A greater emphasis on love, faith, and the heart.
  •           Emphasis and Function.

                   o     Israel’s Potential (4:5-8; cf. Rom. 2:24).

                   o     Israel’s Loyalty (6:4-9, 20-25)

                   o     Israel’s Holiness (7:6; 14:2; I Pet. 2:9; Matt. 5:48).

            The Torah of Moses is an amazing testimony to God’s holiness, wisdom, and love. The Torah managed rebellious Israel as a civil state, constructed their religion to point forward to the fullness of Christ, and gave a holy model of spiritual conduct as high and unchangeable as God Himself!

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Jehoiakim and His Knife

“And it came to pass, when Jehudi had read three or four pages, the king cut it with the penknife, and cast it into the fire that was on the hearth, until all the roll was consumed in the fire that was on the hearth” (Jer. 36:23).

            King Jehoiakim sent for the scroll of Jeremiah.  When the scroll arrived, the King commanded it to be read. After only three or four pages had been covered, he took the scroll from the reader and with his knife he cut it to pieces and cast it into the fire. This revealed the attitude of the wicked king to God and his word.

            Down through the ages, others have opposed God and his revelation. Just as with Jehoiakim’s efforts, the message from God continues to survive all destructive efforts.  The Bible continues to reveal the “thoughts and intent of the heart.”  As long as the earth stands, the Word of God will be here to reveal truth. It will continue to probe the depths of the heart and, at times, bring inconvenient truths. “Heaven and earth shall pass away but my word shall not pass away (Matt. 24:33).

.           People today may not commonly use a knife or fire to destroy the Word, but their motives may be the same. When people fail to read and study the will of God the effect is as if they were cutting and burning the Bible. The Bible has no affect on their life and the person soon dies spiritually.  “Man cannot live by bread alone.”

            When a preacher will not preach the Word in completeness or teaches the “doctrines and commandments of men,” he, in effect, destroys the Word. When we fail to teach and live the whole council of God, we are cutting and burning the Bible. When anyone seeks to destroy God’s Word by denying the true nature of the Book, the cutting and burning continues.

            Today, we do not need to cut and burn the Bible to destroy it; we can simply leave it on a shelf or table to collect dust. In homes where a family does not allow the fullness of truth to hold sway, Scripture may as well be incinerated. Churches where the Bible is a mere pew ornament may as well take out knives and fire up a brazier

            We must exercise vigilance to prevent the full Gospel from becoming an incomplete, distorted, or disrespected relic of God’s great gift.

JESUS THE “SECRET” TO VICTORY

Transformed Into His Image

Part Two   

       As the crucified Christ draws people to be saved and added to the church (Acts 2:36-38, 47), so also does His crucifixion mold Christians into His image (Gal. 2:20; 6:15). Transformation, based on proper motivation, is the key.

Primary Source Material

      With the one sufficient motivation understood, the actual nature of the transformation must then be completely and clearly seen. Here the Gospels are again of greatest value. Christ is the true hub of the Bible. Though it has been said among us that Acts chapter two is the hub, surely the Christ is of more significance than is the beginning date of the church—no Jesus, no church. Before Jesus came, all Scripture looked forward to Him. In His Incarnation, the focus of the Bible fell uniquely upon Him. Since His Ascension, all revelation looks back to Him.

     By considering the incarnation of Jesus, we have a unique opportunity to see the only perfect life ever to have graced the planet.  Seeing such perfection in action takes us where merely hearing about right and wrong cannot go. As has been observed, seeing a sermon has a power that goes beyond hearing one. No one else could have said, “If you have seen Me, you have seen the Father” (Jn. 14:9). Let us, therefore, take the advice of Phillip to Nathaniel and “come and see.”

The Model for Our Transformation

       What do we see? What principles do we see dominating the life of Jesus? What drove Him to be the man that He was? What aspects of His life might be referenced to best portray the essence of the Man?

     The starting place for our discovery must be the starting place honored by Jesus—the Father. He lived in submission to the Father in all things (Jn. 4:34; 5:30; 6:38; 8:28; 12:49; 14:10; Matt. 26:39). In other words, He perfectly followed the Great Commandment (Matt. 22:36-38). Without either compromise or apology, He was the Father’s man.

     This naturally leads to the next most important concern for Jesus, those created in the Father’s image (Lk. 19:10). He was sent by the God for this very purpose (Jn. 3:16-17). As with the Great Commandment, so with the Second that was “like it,” Jesus perfectly lived a life of service to mankind. He came not to be served, but to serve (Matt. 20:25-28).

     But what does it look like when the two most important commandments are perfectly kept? Indeed it is in the “in fleshing” of truth (Jn. 1:14) that we see what has never been seen before or since. He got it right. He was the one and only perfectly balanced human being to ever live. We need to see this man in action!

It Looked Like This

     He chose fishermen, one was impetuous to a fault (Matt. 16:22-23), two were “sons of thunder” (Mk. 3:17; Lk. 9:54-55). He called a tax collector (Matt. 9:9) to serve with a zealot (Matt. 10:4). Yet, He turned away a man who kept the commandments “from his youth up” (Mk. 10:20), and told “the teacher of Israel” that he must be born again (Jn. 3:3-5, 10). His greatest complements were for a Roman centurion (Matt. 8:10), an “insignificant” foreign woman (Matt. 15:21-28), a poor, unnoticed widow (Mk. 12:41-44), and an “unclean” woman (Matt. 9:19-22). His most pointed rebukes, however, were reserved for the religious leaders (Matt. 23:1-39), and people of power (Matt. 11:8; Lk. 16:19-31).

     He cared for those who received no attention (Jn. 5:1-9). He took notice of the unnoticed (Lk. 21:1-4). He had compassion for the harassed and downtrodden (Matt. 9:36-38). In this wonderful man’s life He rewrote the book on how others, not self, are to be the focus of service (Matt. 20:28).

      He preached what most felt should have been left unsaid (Matt. 15:12). He cleared out corruption that others fearfully chose to ignore (Jn. 2:14-17; Matt. 21:12-13). His pointed rhetoric laid bare the hearts of those who sought to please self rather than the Father (Jn. 5:39-44). He went where he wasn’t supposed to go, talked to those His culture said He should ignore, and brought salvation to those who others condescendingly rejected (Jn. 4:3-42).

     He offered no compromises with regard to the truth (Matt. 5:17-20), always requiring a recognition of the true intent of every command of God (Matt. 5:21-48). He resorted to Scripture to resist Satan (Matt. 4:1-11), correct His detractors (Mk. 12:24-27), and nurture His disciples (Matt. 13:1-58). And yet, while maintaining an unwavering loyalty to God’s word, He showed us the inescapable place of mercy (Matt. 9:10-13; 12:1-8). He used truth to afflict the comfortable (Matt. 23:1-39), and to comfort the afflicted (Matt. 11:28-30). In His singular example of how justice and mercy were to work together, His forgiveness was never separate from repentance (Jn. 8:1-11).

   In these qualities of Jesus that we have just recalled, we see real life. His ministry was no mere cardboard, one-dimensional checklist isolated from the challenges and struggles of life in the flesh (Heb. 4:14-16). No, Jesus was real. He was: completely knowledgeable, yet no mere academician (Matt. 7:28-29); uncompromising, but not unfeeling (Jn. 11:35); God, yet man (Jn. 1:1, 14).

     Therefore, our transformation must also be real. In this radical change we are not speaking of just being able to quote Scripture (Jn. 5:39). Similarly, our goal must never be concerned merely with being right (Matt. 23:1-7). Our transformation must be a complete package (Matt. 5:48). It is incompleteness, we must see, that causes people to misunderstand the nature of God (Matt. 9:13; 12:7); it is Christ-centered completeness that awakens us to a knowledge of the Father (Jn. 14:7-9).

A Biblical Imperative

     This transformation to Christ-likeness is no small thing. The Bible, therefore, places the concept on center stage. Christ-likeness is imperative! It is an absolute necessity because there is no better way to attend to the business of God than to address it in the spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9).  Consider, therefore, the following evidence to the importance of conformity to the image of Jesus:

     Paul reveals to the Roman church how God had purposed that a time would come when men and women would be conformed to the image of Christ (Rom. 8:29). The Scriptures, he wrote to the Corinthians, presented the very mind of Christ (I Cor. 2:16), and, with a daily introspective walk, would transform a believer into the image of the Lord (II Cor. 3:18).

     To the Galatians Paul told how he had died to self that he might live to Christ (Gal. 2:20). He further pointed out the need for the Galatian Christians to follow his example and form Christ in themselves (Gal. 4:19). The Ephesian church received no less an emphasis as they were told that Christ needed to be formed in their hearts through faith (Eph. 3:16-17). They were to grow up completely in all that had to do with the Christ (Eph. 4:15).

     The Philippian brothers and sisters were admonished to have the mind of Christ in them. The Colossians were informed that Christ in the heart of a Christian was their hope of glory (Col. 1:27). For that reason, Paul labored and strove to present every convert complete in Christ (Col. 1:28-29).

     Simon Peter was, as we would expect, of one spirit with Paul in this critical point of inner transformation. He challenged all Christians to set apart Jesus as the Lord of their hearts and thus be able to offer a proper defense of their faith (I Pet. 3:15). Consider the transformation we would witness in the church today if every Christian were personally committed to Simon’s instructions.

   Additionally, John’s words about walking in the light are surely to be understood as a walk of transformation (I Jn. 1:7), as James’ teaching on receiving the word implanted are to be understood by the Christ-like implications they require (Jas. 1:21). Yes, New Covenant reverberates with the theme of Christ-like transformation!

Applications for Our Day

     What are we to do with this pervasive, vital teaching on transformation? How do we come to be known for our Christ-likeness and for the inevitable evangelistic zeal it will produce? What are practical steps we can begin to take to insure that this teaching that is so close to God’s heart will come to be a priority in our hearts?

     Transformation must be preached and taught. What we do not know, we cannot do. What we do not hold up in our words and deeds as being important, we will not succeed in passing on to others. From pulpits, to Bible classrooms, to our homes, to our schools,  and work places, conformity to Jesus must be seen as our uncompromised imperative. What we write, how we write, and the importance we attach to acquainting the world with what we have to say, these things will need to be revitalized. Could a transformed people behave any other way?

     Factual knowledge will be required if we are to succeed. But facts that do not lead to a transformed heart are but words that have not attained their God-given purpose (Rom. 2:17-29). There must be a hierarchy here; Jesus is to be the end or goal of our teaching (cf. Acts 2:22-38). Love for Him must compel us to live as He directs (II Cor. 5:14-15). The Jews knew facts; they did not understand that the facts spoke of Jesus (Jn. 5:39-47). We can go to heaven without knowing the length of Og’s bed; we cannot enter there without knowing the Christ (Jn. 17:3).

     Transformation is a restoration thing. We who teach others, are we teaching ourselves (Rom. 2:21a)? Will we restore church government, the forms for New Testament worship, the steps of faith leading to Christ, and yet not restore the imperative of transformation? Will we go out from our church buildings motivated   love of Christ, with Jesus sanctified in our hearts, ready, willing, and able to make our case for the Christ? Or will we just go back to the house?

PROVIDENCE AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

Providence and the Working of God

What is providence? There is much debate these days about what it is, how it operates, and even with a few, if it exists at all. What are we to make of it? Is it still an active force in God’s dealings with His people? Are we to be deistic, having a God who has left the world to wind down as if it were a clock? Are we to be charismatic, embracing a God who continually reveals truth and works miracles? Or, regarding God’s work of providence is there a biblical middle ground allowing us to see God as one who actually works into the system, yet not so as to suspend the natural way of things?

To begin with, the Greek word for providence, pronoia, has in its various forms a basic meaning of “the foreknowledge that allows someone to make appropriate provisions.” While in biblical usage the actual word always refers to human foresight and planning (noun form: Acts 24:2; Rom. 13:14; verb form: Rom. 12:17; 2 Cor. 8:21; I Tim. 5:8), there is certainly an application of the content of the word to God’s “pro-visions.” His plan, after all, has not yet come to its conclusion. He has promised to be with us to the end of this world (Matt. 28:20; Heb. 13:5b). At the very least, God would be expected to exercise a supervisory role over His Creation project. Any idea of disinterest is certainly ruled out by the cross (Jn. 3:16). Clearly, God has not abandoned what He gave so much to bring about (I Jn. 5:13-15).

Divine superintendence over the creation and assistance to His people are, therefore, a certainty in the Christian Era. This combination of management and aid is what we speak of when we apply the word providence to the work of God today. God’s foreknowledge allowed Him to provide for the needs of His great salvation project; His omnipresence allows Him to continue to do so. Paul’s words in Romans 8:28-30 put the matter in perspective; God is active in His creation in ways that are appropriate for His plan of salvation. He has provided within the context of the creation (Matt. 5:45) and He will provide as needed for the success of His kingdom (Eph. 3:20). This ongoing care refutes Deism’s “wind up the clock and leave it” notion, but this refutation does not therefore imply either the hyper-charismatic “find me a parking place, I’m in a hurry” triviality.

To clarify and put in perspective the relationship between the supernatural and the providential, a look at the work of the Holy Spirit is useful. The initial work of the Holy Spirit was to reveal and confirm the word (Jn. 14:26; 16:13-14; I Cor. 2:6-16; Heb. 2:3-4; Mk. 16:20). This work was to have a definite duration, a time of completion or perfection (I Cor. 13:8-13; Eph.4:11-16). The initial work of the Holy Spirit brought about “the faith,” the completed revelation from Christ as a “once for all” system of faith (Jude 3).

The initial work of the Spirit began on Pentecost. The giving of the Spirit had been promised by Jesus (Jn. 7:39; 14:26; 16:13-14). This promise was fulfilled (Acts 2:33; 2:1-21; cf. Joel 2:28-32). The Holy Spirit was given to believers (Acts 2:38; 5:32), Apostles first (Acts 1:1:26-2:4, 43). The miraculous powers of the Holy Spirit were administered by the Apostles (Acts 8:18; II Tim. 1:6; Rom. 1:11). The Apostolic Office served as foundational in the building up of the church (Eph. 2:20-22; cf. 4:11-12).

This miraculous era managed by Apostles came to an end (cf. I Cor. 13:8-10; Eph. 4:13), but the foundation of that age remains as the same foundation for the church today (Eph. 2:20-24; I Cor. 3:11). While the miraculous work was coming to a close (I Cor. 13:9-10), the abiding work of the fully revealed word (Eph. 4:13; Jn. 14:26; 16:13) began coming to the forefront (Jude 3). Confusion can be avoided by realizing that in the time the Bible was being written, both the initial and the abiding aspects of the Spirit’s work were going on at the same time.

The abiding work of the Holy Spirit is actually superior to the initial miraculous work of the early church. The temporary work of the Holy Spirit, because of its rather spectacular nature, has caused many to see that era as superior to our time. This cannot be so, however; the end result of the miraculous activity would of necessity be superior to the means used to achieve its goal (cf. Heb. 1-4).

Some have also thought that miracles are an abiding part of the Christian age. However, the Bible also disproves this, as do our own observations. What we see with our own eyes confirms that nothing purported to be going on today compares to the quality of the true biblical miracles of the first century. “Healings” are questionable and incomplete. No one today walks into a hospital and leads everyone out completely healed. People ravaged by cerebral palsy and quadriplegics with severed spinal cords are not “cured” by the so-called faith healers; the miraculous power of God, when it is truly applied, knows no such limitations (cf. Matt. 8:16; 9:35; 14:14; Mk. 6:33; Lk. 4:40; Acts 5:16). Those who profess to be led by the Spirit contradict each other and the Bible. Where, therefore, do we find truth?

Working on the implications of the conclusions just developed, we can begin to define the borders within which we are to find a present day definition for providence. We have seen that God working counter to or in suspension of the “natural” laws of the creation is not to be expected today—not because He cannot, but because He does not. We also see that God working within the nature of the system of creation is to be expected—not because He has limited power, but because He chooses to limit the expressions of His power (cf. Jn. 20:29; Heb. 11:1). The issue is not one of whether God works, but how He works.

Joseph is a wonderful ancient example of our developed understanding of contemporary providence. God was at work behind the scenes to bring Jacob, the father of the nation of Israel, to Egypt, even as had been predicted (Gen. 45:7; 50:15-21; cf. Gen. 15:12-16). Another instructive Old Covenant example can be seen in the book of Esther. The name of God is not found in the book, but God’s providential hand is present everywhere (Esth. 4:14). With Joseph and with Esther, God was at work to further His plan for the coming Christ. He did not work by suspending or overruling natural laws. He did, however, work.

The New Testament, as we would expect, adds clearer light toward developing a better understanding of the nature of providence. One example from John shows us that prayer is answered when it is in keeping with God’s will (Jn. 14:13; I Jn. 3:22; 5:14; cf. Eph. 3:20). God is therefore clearly active in the Messianic Age to advance His will. Christians can be assured that God is working behind the scenes to promote His cause. Prayers are answered. Help is given.

Additionally, intercession is provided by the Holy Spirit when we do not know how to articulate the thoughts of our heart. We need not worry, God understands (Rom. 8:26-27). We also see that the Father has managed and guided His plan and will continue to do so. All things work together for the sake of God’s plan of salvation (Rom. 8:28).

But how exactly does providence work? How does God do it? We do not know! We do, however, know that providence does work because God works it. While Scripture shows God’s contemporary work is not miraculous and that the time of miracles in the first-century served its purpose (I Cor. 13:8b-10; Eph. 4:11-13; Jn. 14:26), we can know with assurance that God has not ceased working for His people.

That brings us to one of the most interesting considerations associated with contemporary providence: we cannot know just exactly when it is dispensed. We might, due to its “within the system” nature, attribute its actions to natural phenomenon, or vice versa (cf. Jas. 5:16-18; Lk. 13:1-5). God uses His supernatural ability to effect what might otherwise be just natural occurrences. Not to worry though, our ignorance of the particulars need not bring us to dismay. As stated, we can know that God is at work (Heb. 13:5-6). Our God is alive, and He is the helper of all who serve Him! There will be no miraculous voices in the night, we will not walk on water or raise the dead, but God will be with us in our studies of His word and in all our work on His behalf. We will not experience Calvinistic enlightenment, but we will be benefited as we pray for understanding. We are not totally depraved, but we are all adversely affected by our sins and need all the help we can get to be the best that we can be. We must exercise personal responsibility (Jas. 2:14-26; II Tim. 2:15), but we are not alone (Matt. 28:20). God is with us!